AFTER IMAGE

optical-illusions16.jpg

PHENAKISTOSCOPE / PRAXINOSCOPE / ZOETROPE

The phenakistoscope was invented by the Belgian physicist Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau. Plateau was interested in investigating the phenomenon of 'persistence of vision' by which illusions of movement could be created if very similar images were replaced at a rapid rate. His demonstration of this effect was made by setting a number of similar images onto a disc with slots cut around the edge. When the disc was viewed from behind in a mirror and the spun, the observer saw a single moving image. This device was modified to form the zoetrope, which became a popular entertainment in the latter part of the nineteenth century

THAUMATROPE


Like the zoetrope and the praxinoscope, the thaumatrope exploits the fact that images which are replaced fast enough are perceived by the eye to be a single. These discs have a different image on each side, such as a bird and a cage. When the strings at the side of the disc are held taught and used to spin the disc, the eye sees a single image of a bird in a cage. Thaumatropes were probably the brainchild of Dr John Ayrton Paris, a London physician, who first put them on sale to the public in 1826.

FLIP BOOKS


STOP ACTION ANIMATION


John Latham, World View, Speak 1967